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Accurate weather forecasts are vital to air combat operations. Quantitative assessments of forecasts and their operational impacts are essential to improving weather support for war fighters. We adapted an existing U.S. Navy, web-based, near real time system for collecting and analyzing data on the performance and operational impacts of military forecasts. We used the adapted system to collect and analyze data on Air Force Weather (AFW) forecasts, and the planning and execution of flying...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Darnell, Karen M, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *WEATHER FORECASTING, *AIR...

This AFOSR-supported research was aimed at realizing several chip-scale optical devices needed as building blocks for implementing integrated optical systems. To achieve this, we developed several theoretical, fabrication, and characterization tools and procedures for photonic crystals. Some of the main achievements of the previous AFOSR-funded research at the device level are as follows: (1) Photonic crystal waveguides (PCWs) with low loss, large transmission bandwidth, and very low dispersion...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Adibi, Ali, GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH CORP ATLANTA, *CHIPS(ELECTRONICS), *WAVEGUIDES,...

A method is presented to use the massively parallel environment of High Performance Computing (HPC) to more rapidly compute the reliability prediction of military ground vehicles. Current work, and future plans are discussed. Challenges already surmounted are indicated, as are those still to be met.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Lamb, David A, TACOM RESEARCH DEVELOPMENT AND ENGINEERING CENTER WARREN MI,...

Tetratellurotetracene (TTeT), synthesized in 13% yield from tetrachlorotetracene and a new sodium ditelluride reagent, absorbs at longer wavelengths in both solution and solid state and is oxidized electrochemically at a lower potential, compared to its selenium analog. The structure of TTeT, a monoclinic crystal, exhibits short interstack contacts of 3.701(1)A.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Sandman,Daniel J, BRANDEIS UNIV WALTHAM MA DEPT OF CHEMISTRY, *Synthesis(Chemistry),...

This Quarterly Technical Report describes work on the development of and experimentation with packet broadcast by satellite; on development of Pluribus Satellite IMPs; on a study of the technology of Remote Site Maintenance; on Internetwork monitoring; on shipboard satellite communications; and on the development of Transmission Control Protocols for the HP3000 and VAX-UNIX. (Author)
Topics: DTIC Archive, Haverty,J F, BOLT BERANEK AND NEWMAN INC CAMBRIDGE MA, *Satellite communications,...

Somatosensory evoked potentials (EPs) produced by stimulation of the dorsal columns were recorded from the cervico-medullary junction of adult Rhesus, and were analysed using normalized cross-correlation functions (NCCFs), simple peak-detection, and RMS amplitude measurement. The NCCF provided measures of latency shift and waveshape change, while the more traditional peak-detection method provided measures of peak latency and peak amplitude. The results of these procedures were plotted as...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Berger,Michael D, NAVAL BIODYNAMICS LAB NEW ORLEANS LA, *CORRELATION TECHNIQUES,...

Stress affects an individual both physiologically and psychologically. In this study, a random sample of 438 adult American workers were given a 160-item questionnaire to extract an individual's: 1) perceived stress; 2) perceived productivity; 3) response to different stressors; and 4) personality and physical traits. Blood tests were also given to extract an individual's cortisol, total serum cholesterol and HDL cholesterol levels. Statistical analysis was then completed to extract the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Martin,William H, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF SYSTEMS...

This report presents the effects of Total Force Policy on DoD's wartime logistics support structure. The Reserve Component now has a major responsibility for many critical logistics functions. The DoD cannot deploy and receive the surge of combat units into a theater nor support those units already in place without an immediate and significant infusion of Guard and Reserve logistics units.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Simms,Edward D , Jr, LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT INST WASHINGTON DC, *NATIONAL GUARD,...

The results of a cultural resources survey and literature search are reported for the major tributaries and perimeter of the Goleta Slough in Santa Barbara County, California. The study was designed to locate cultural resources, evaluate their significance, and assess potential impacts from the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers' proposed Goleta Flood Protection Program. As a result of the inventory a total of 64 prehistoric and historic cultural resources were identified and documented;...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Wilcoxon,L R, ARCHAEOLOGICAL SYSTEMS MANAGEMENT INC SAN DIEGO CA, *SITES, *HISTORY,...

Contents: Hydrological and Meteorological Data; Water Chemistry Data; Phytoplankton and Periphyton; Zooplankton; Macrobenthic Invertebrates; Sediments; Fish Tissues Analysis.
Topics: DTIC Archive, ARMY ENGINEER DISTRICT SAVANNAH GA, *WATER QUALITY, *RESERVOIRS, TISSUES(BIOLOGY),...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Monash,Curt Alfred, YALE UNIV NEW HAVEN CT COWLES FOUNDATION FOR RESEARCH IN...

An effective scheme for subarraying an antenna array is presented. The subarray technique uses a partitioned weighted Butler matrix transform where the partition is an adapting function of the geometry of the noise environment. After subarraying, the subarrayed outputs are adaptively weighted in such a way so as to maximize the output signal-to-noise ratio. It is shown that this technique effectively cancels sidelobe jamming without significantly degrading the signal-to-noise ratio that is...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Gerlach,Karl R, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *MATRICES(MATHEMATICS), *ANTENNAS,...

Calibration concerns the relationship between subjective probabilities and the long-run frequencies of events. Theorems from the statistical and probability literature are reviewed to discover the conditions under which a coherent Bayesian expects to be calibrated. If the probability assessor knows the outcomes of all previous events when making each assessment, calibration is always expected. However, when such outcome feedback is lacking, the assessor expects to be well calibrated on an...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kadane,Joseph B, DECISION RESEARCH EUGENE OR, *PREDICTIONS, *FORECASTING,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Locke,Edwin A, MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK COLL OF BUSINESS AND MANAGEMENT,...

On three occasions, portable magnetometer experiments with automated data systems designed especially for unsupervised operation were sited within a 50 km radius of underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The purpose of these experiments was to determine whether the disturbance of the atmosphere by the ground movement related to the test created a measurable perturbation current in the ionosphere. Preliminary analyses of the results suggest that the natural ULF magnetic background is...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Luhmann, Janet G, CALIFORNIA UNIV LOS ANGELES, *GROUND MOTION, *IONOSPHERE,...

This monograph determines the tenets of Fourth Generation Warfare (4GW) through a review of current literature. The case studies of Braddock's Campaign, the Southern Campaign of the American Revolution, and the Philippines Insurrection provide justification for the presence of the tenets of 4GW throughout American Military History and provide insights into the fighting 4GW. The insights garnered from a review of the case studies are then used to provide strategies for the successful engagement...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Davis, Scott A, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS, *MILITARY...

The services acquisition volume in the US Department of Defense (DoD) has continued to increase in scope and dollars in the past decade. Between FY 1999 to FY 2003, DoD's spending on services increased by 66%, and in FY 2003, the DoD spent over $118 billion (or approximately 57% of total DoD procurement dollars) on services. In recent years, the DoD has spent more on services than on supplies, equipment and goods, even considering the high value of weapon systems and large military items. These...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Apte, Uday, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA GRADUATE SCHOOL OF BUSINESS AND...

Initial clinical studies of Phase I Q fever vaccine (IND no. 610) have been undertaken this year in 18 volunteers at two dose levels. Local reactions to vaccine were minimal and without abscess or granuloma formation. Immunologic results show consistent antibody responses and variable lymphocyte transformation responses to Q fever antigens. Dermal granulomatous skin reactions seen to Q fever vaccine antigens in immune guinea pigs have been analyzed for their immunologic basis. New information...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ascher,M S, CALIFORNIA UNIV IRVINE DEPT OF MEDICINE, *Vaccines, *Q fever,...

Civilian Manpower Statistics (CMS) is published monthly by the Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services, Directorate for Information Operations and Reports. CMS provides statistical information on the civilian work force of the Department of Defense (DoD), with the exception of personnel of the National Security Agency and personnel paid from non-appropriated funds. It is produced primarily from a computerized database developed and maintained by WHS/DIOR from...
Topics: DTIC Archive, WASHINGTON HEADQUARTERS SERVICES (DOD) DC DIRECTORATE FOR INFORMATION OPERATIONS AND...

Here, we contribute to the continuing development of the quasi-wavelet (QW) model of turbulence that is currently being used in simulations of sound propagation and scattering in the turbulent atmosphere. We show that a QW model of temperature fluctuations exists for any physically reasonable temperature spectrum of isotropic homogeneous turbulence, including the widely used von Karman spectrum. We derive a simple formula for the QW shape that reproduces a given spectrum exactly in the energy,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Goedecke, George H, NEW MEXICO STATE UNIV LAS CRUCES DEPT OF PHYSICS, *ATMOSPHERIC...

The United States' position as a global economic leader rests on a financial infrastructure that is second to none in size, liquidity, complexity, and trust. The financial services industry impacts the daily lives of all Americans. They rely on it to save for their retirement and their children's education, pay their bills, insure against risks, and buy their homes and automobiles. Governments and businesses look to the industry to fund corporate expansion, finance improvements to public...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Arezo, Gullab, INDUSTRIAL COLL OF THE ARMED FORCES WASHINGTON DC, *INDUSTRIES,...

Rare earth (RE) dopants (such as Er, Eu, Tm) in the wide bandgap semiconductor (WBGS) GaN are investigated for the fabrication of robust visible and infrared light emitting devices at a variety of wavelengths. GaN:RE devices are extremely versatile emitters which emit light at very specific wavelengths and with very narrow spectral linewidth (due to inner shell transitions of the selected RE dopants). We have fabricated singly doped GaN: RE devices emitting pure light at the three primary...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Steckl, Andrew, CINCINNATI UNIV OH, *VISIBILITY, *RARE EARTH ELEMENTS, *LIGHT...

The current National Security Strategy of the United States of America is not, as stated, a comprehensive representation of unique American internationalism. However, there are key components of American national character that give rise to the notion of American exceptionalism that are evident when one examines American historical political thought. Four threads of entrenched American character emerge: a belief in the ethical importance of American elements of national power as means and ends...
Topics: DTIC Archive, McNevin, David T, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *FOREIGN POLICY, *NATIONAL...

Fabrication and Characterization of Electrical Field were investigated to develop induced Resistive Sensor at the end of Scanning Probe Tip. The measurement and visual observation of doping profile were performed on Kelvin Prove Force Microscopy (KPFM) & Scanning Nonlinear Dielectric Microscopy (SNDM). NiO Film was fabricated and characterized for Memory Switching applications. Last, effects of Surface Treatment on Work Function & in-plane conductivity of ITO (Indium Tin Oxide) Thin...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Shin, Hyunjung, KOOKMIN UNIV SEOUL (KOREA SOUTH) SCHOOL OF ADVANCED MATERIALS...

This paper was developed under a SBIR contract. The effect of Sc additions on precipitation strengthening in AI-Zn-Mg-Cu alloys was studied after natural and artificial aging. Phase analysis was performed using transmission electron microscopy and computer simulations. Microhardness of the alloys was studied after different steps of aging and the strengthening mechanisms were discussed. It was found that Sc does not affect the kinetics of aging at room temperature, which is controlled by...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Shaghiev, M R, UES INC DAYTON OH, *AGING(MATERIALS), *ALUMINUM ALLOYS, *COPPER...

Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *REPORTS, *KOREA, MILITARY...

Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY, ELECTRONICS,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY, ELECTRONICS,...

The 2006 World Parkinson Congress (WPC) was held over five days from February 22-26, 2006 in Washington, DC. It was organized to provide an international forum for the latest scientific discoveries, medical practices and caregiver initiatives related to Parkinson's disease (PD). The first-ever WPC attracted more than 3,100 attendees from nearly 60 countries who participated in 150 educational sessions over five days with speakers and audiences representing numerous disciplines. The Congress...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Fahn, Stanley, WORLD PARKINSON CONGRESS INC NEW YORK NY, *SYMPOSIA, *MEDICAL...

The overall objective of this project is to study the safety, immunologic response and clinical effects of vaccinating breast cancer patients with dendritic cell (DC)/tumor fusions in conjunction with IL-12. Studies performed in Task 1 have shown that the DC/breast tumor fusions are effective in (1) stimulating cytokine production, and (2) inducing tumor-specific T cell responses. Work performed over the past year has extended these studies by further defining the effects of stimulation with...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kufe, Donald W, DANA-FARBER CANCER INST BOSTON MA, *T LYMPHOCYTES, *IMMUNITY, *BREAST...

This section gives a short survey of the principles and the terminology of phased array radar. Beamforming, radar detection and parameter estimation are described. The concept of subarrays and monopulse estimation with arbitrary subarrays is developed. As a preparation to adaptive beam forming, which is treated in several other sections, the topic of pattern shaping by deterministic weighting is presented in more detail.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Nickel, Ulrich, FGAN-FHR RESEARCH INST FOR HIGH FREQUENCY PHYSICS AND RADAR...

Unmanned Combat Aerial Vehicles (UCAVs) are advanced weapon systems that can loiter autonomously in a pack over a target area, detect and acquire the targets, and then engage them. Modeling these capabilities in a specific hostile operational setting is necessary for addressing weapons' design and operational issues. In this paper we develop several analytic probability models, which range from a simple regenerative formula to a large-scale continuous-time Markov chain, with the objective to...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kress, Moshe, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA DEPT OF OPERATIONS RESEARCH,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *MANAGEMENT PLANNING AND CONTROL,...

The U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) has developed a low-cost, mobile, rugged, non-line-of-sight acoustic sensor for surveillance, detection, identification, and locations of targets using unattended microphone sensors to measure infrasonic (10 Hz) energy. However, it also was discovered that the acoustic sensor is capable of measuring background noise sources such as thunderstorms and severe weather. On 28 April 2002, the F4 La Plata, Maryland, tornado passed 13 km from the acoustic sensor...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Passner, Jeffrey E, ARMY RESEARCH LAB WHITE SANDS MISSILE RANGE NM COMPUTATIONAL AND...

Near Infrared (NIR) tomography is an imaging technique that aims to image optical properties of biological tissue. This technique has been used to image and characterize breast tissue in healthy volunteers as well as detecting tumor in patients. Image reconstruction algorithms have been developed, which utilizes inherent wavelength dependant a-priori information (spectral) as well as concurrently measured MRI structural information (spatial) to show that the quantitative and qualitative...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Dehghani, Hamid, DARTMOUTH COLL HANOVER NH, *COMPUTERIZED TOMOGRAPHY, *BREAST CANCER,...

The composition and structure of Sony Corporation's new 14430 lithium-ion battery electrodes was investigated. It was observed that the anode is a composite consisting of an equal amount on a weight basis of graphite and an amorphous alloy phase. The alloy phase consists mainly of tin and cobalt, with a tin:cobalt ratio of about 1:1. The particle size of the alloy phase is less than 1 micron. For the cathode it was observed that it is a composite consisting of a majority LiCoO2 phase and a...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Wolfenstine, J, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ADELPHI MD SENSORS AND ELECTRON DEVICES...

The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of using a lower body prototype exoskeleton (EXO) on Soldiers static limits of stability and postural sway. Ten Army enlisted men participated in the study. Limits of stability and postural sway were measured while participants stood on a force platform. Soldiers were tested with and without the EXO (15 kg) while carrying three load configurations: fighting load (20 kg), approach march load (40 kg), and emergency approach march load (55...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Schiffman, Jeffrey M, ARMY NATICK SOLDIER CENTER MA, *POSTURE(PHYSIOLOGY),...

As the Department of Defense prepares for the 21st century security environment, tough decisions will need to be made within a fiscally constrained budget. These decisions must rest upon the guidance contained in the national strategies, Global Defense Posture, and Transformation Planning Guidance. Sea basing meets this guidance regardless of the composition of ground forces. Furthermore, sea basing is especially effective in response to the lesser contingencies that are anticipated due to the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Krause, Cary J, NATIONAL DEFENSE UNIV NORFOLK VA JOINT ADVANCED WARFIGHTING SCHOOL,...

The National Security Strategy notes that weak states are vulnerable to terrorist networks and therefore pose as great a danger to U.S. national interests as strong states. The U.S. policy of pre-emption to eliminate terrorist networks through traditional combat operations is a partial solution. As an integral part of the nation's overall security strategy, the follow through to stabilize and rebuild states emerging from conflict is a national security priority. The U.S. military has a major...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Bullimore, Steven L, ARMY WAR COLL CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *STABILIZATION, *NATIONAL...

NRL has been conducting research into locating hostile gunfire based on detecting the infrared (IR) muzzle flash. As Fig. 5 shows, the IR flash is very pronounced and significantly larger than the visible flash. Recently, four integrated HMMWV-based gunfire detection and location (GDL) systems were developed under Office of Naval Research (ONR) sponsorship. GDL augmented the IR detection capability with a slewable electro-optic payload for day/night imaging, situational awareness, range...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC TACTICAL ELECTRONIC WARFARE DIV, *SITUATIONAL...

The Civil Service Reform Act of 1978 required the implementation of the Merit Pay System for a portion of the Federal civilian workforce as a means of increasing productivity through the use of monetary incentives. To test the validity of this concept, several theories of worker motivation are reviewed and their relation to money motivation and pay-for-performance is established. These relationships are compared to the results of data gathered from 241 employees affected by the Act. The...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Engel, James D., NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *SALARIES,...

This memorandum examines the Iran-Iraq War from a strategic perspective to determine its causes, to analyze the military strategy and events of the war in order to shed light on significant tactical and logistical developments, and to derive tentative conclusions regarding the strategic importance of the Gulf War. The author concludes that had Saddam Hussein properly evaluated the conflicting demands of his political objectives and security policy on his strategic concept, he would probably...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Staudenmaier,William O, ARMY WAR COLL STRATEGIC STUDIES INST CARLISLE BARRACKS PA,...

A model of aircraft life cycle cost is developed. This cost is estimated to be a function of the production schedule. The effect modeled is the cost variation as a function of increasing aircraft reliability achieved after the completion of a number of operating hours. An optimization problem is outlined that yields the best production schedule. A search algorithm for this difficult integer nonlinear programming problem is used to find the optimum schedule. Present practices with advanced jet...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Harrison, Robert A, GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIV WASHINGTON DC PROGRAM IN LOGISTICS,...

This thesis compares the development of fleet ballistic missile systems in the United States and Soviet Union and their contribution to the achievement of national security objectives of each nation. To this end, submarine and missile technologies, elements of operational practices and support, and general strategic doctrine, are traced. A comparative assessment of weapon system effectiveness and potential in achieving stated objectives is derived from capabilities, peacetime employment, and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ford,Thom W, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *MILITARY DOCTRINE, *WEAPON...

This inspection completion report is an evaluation of 13 fleet moorings located in the lagoon, on the atoll of Diego Garcia. This information is based on the underwater inspection of these moorings by CHESNAVFACENGCOM using UCT-2 divers during the period 12-31 May 1982. The results of this inspection revealed that only one of the moorings required downgrading. Overall, the cathodic protection systems are effective when intact. Comments concerning the specific condition of each mooring buoy and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL FACILITIES ENGINEERING COMMAND WASHINGTON DC CHESAPEAKE DIV, *MOORING BUOYS,...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Teplov,L F, FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *Test equipment, *Wind...

The relations between spectral reflectance, percent ground cover, and leaf area index (LAI) for vegetation-soil targets were evaluated for green vegetation against either a light-toned sand and a dark-toned organic loam soil. The percent ground cover and LAI were calculated for the ground area in the radiometer's field of view. The special reflectances of the different targets were measured in the 400 to 1100 nm region. For the vegetation-organic loam targets, the present cover and LAI varied...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Satterwhite, Melvin B., ARMY ENGINEER TOPOGRAPHIC LABS FORT BELVOIR VA, *REFLECTANCE,...

A three year program directed towards understanding the behavior of excited halogen azides in photochemical system and the role of azide intermediates in elementary chemical reaction has been completed. Experiments performed are divided into four tasks as follows: (1) Chemiluminescence flow tube studies and halogen atom-azide molecule reactions, (2) UV and vacuum UV absorption spectroscopy of the C1N3, (3) real-time, laser-initiated studies, and (4) matrix isolation studies of the F + HN3...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Pritt,A T , Jr, ROCKWELL INTERNATIONAL THOUSAND OAKS CA SCIENCE CENTER,...

This report describes a method of computing confidences in rule-based inference systems by using the Dempster-Shafter theory. The theory is applicable to tactical decision problems which can be formulated in terms of sets of exhaustive and mutually exclusive propositions. Dempster's combining procedure, a generalization of Bayesian inference, can be used to combine probability mass assignments supplied by independent bodies of evidence. This report describes the use of Dempster's combining...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Dillard, R. A., NAVAL OCEAN SYSTEMS CENTER SAN DIEGO CA, *COMPUTATIONS, *PROBABILITY,...

This report describes and analyzes the policy implications of the shifting security and foreign policy concerns among China's leaders since the mid-1960s. Among these concerns, none has more profoundly affected Chinese policymaking than the deterioration and militarization of Sino-Soviet relations. This study traces the course of the conflict between Moscow and Beijing to indicate the increasing emphasis that both leadership have placed on the national security aspects of their rivalry....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Pollack, Jonathan D, RAND CORP SANTA MONICA CA, *INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS, *CHINA,...

The detection and subsequent correction of drift in an analytical signal occurring during the course of an analysis is a common problem in analytical chemistry. In this paper, a solution to this problem is presented in the form of an extension to the theory of the Generalized Standard Addition Method (GSAM), a method currently used to simultaneously correct for matrix effects and interferences in multicomponent analysis. (Author)
Topics: DTIC Archive, Kalivas,J H, WASHINGTON UNIV SEATTLE LAB FOR CHEMOMETRICS, *QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS,...

In November 1997, the NATO Naval Armaments Group on Ship Design (NG/6) established a Specialist Team on Simulation Based Design and Virtual Prototyping (ST-SBDVP). The purpose of the Team is to share information on the benefits, risks, and costs of instituting the technologies and processes of SBDVP applied to the acquisition of naval warships. A specific challenge undertaken by the Team is an experience-based study of international simulation interoperability, by applying the NATO-recommended...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Hurwitz, Myles M, NAVAL SURFACE WARFARE CENTER CARDEROCK DIV BETHESDA MD, *NATO,...

Polyimides (PIs) such as Kapton are used extensively in spacecraft thermal blankets, solar arrays, and space inflatable structures. Atomic oxygen (AO) in low Earth orbit (LEO) causes severe degradation of Kapton. SiO2 coatings impart remarkable oxidation resistance and have been widely used to protect Kapton, yet imperfections in the SiO2 application process and micro-meteoroid/debris impact in orbit damage the SiO2 coating leading to Kapton erosion. A polyimide that is self-passivating by the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Tomczak, Sandra J, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EDWARDS AFB CA PROPULSION DIRECTORATE,...

The goals of this experimental program were to optimize the effectiveness of an icephobic coating for use on several Space Shuttle surfaces, to evaluate the effects of adding an ultraviolet light absorber (UVA) on coating performance, and to assess the consistency and durability of the basic coating and its modifications. The double lap shear test was used to quantify ice adhesion performance at a constant temperature of 112 C ( 170 F). The experiments used ice that was grown as strong and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ferrick, Michael G, ENGINEERING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER HANOVER NH COLD...

Kapton(registered name) is used extensively in spacecraft thermal blankets, solar arrays, and space inflatable structures. Atomic oxygen (AO) in low Earth orbit (LEO) causes severe degradation of Kapton. SiO2 coatings impart remarkable oxidation resistance to Kapton, yet imperfections in the SiO2 application process and micrometeoroid / debris impact in orbit damage the SiO2 coating leading to Kapton erosion. Polyhedral oligomeric silsesquioxane (POSS) is a silicon and oxygen cage-like...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Tomczak, Sandra J, AIR FORCE RESEARCH LAB EDWARDS AFB CA PROPULSION DIRECTORATE,...

This study researched the possible roles and missions conducted by the United States Special Operation Aviation (SOA) community, particularly rotary-wing, fix-wing, unmanned aerial vehicles' roles, as well as SOA's role in Foreign Internal Defense. After determining the roles and missions of SOA, a center of gravity analysis was conducted on the Jemaah Islamiah, Southeast Asia's most dangerous terrorist group with global reach, to determine how SOA can be used to defeat the violent extremist...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Messner, Garrett K, ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLL FORT LEAVENWORTH KS,...

The objective of this delivery order was to conduct research aimed at developing nano-filled polymers for electrical insulation. Improved polymers could be used in wiring, cabling, potting compounds, and capacitors. Specifically, this effort involved research in areas such as nano-filler dispersion, bulk sample fabrication, and thin film processing. These activities are designed to contribute to the improvement of highly stressed electrical insulation with a goal of improved mean time before...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Klosterman, Donald A, DAYTON UNIV OH RESEARCH INST, *POLYMERS, *EPOXY RESINS,...

China is strengthening diplomatic ties and building naval bases along the sea lanes from the Middle East. This String of Pearls strategy is designed to protect its energy security, negate US influence in the region, and project power overseas. China is rapidly building a blue-water navy, developing advanced missile technology, and stockpiling undersea mines to counter US Navy capabilities, especially in the event of a conflict over Taiwan. To counter China's growing naval power, the United...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Spinetta, Lawrence, AIR UNIV MAXWELL AFB AL SCHOOL OF ADVANCED AIR AND SPACE STUDIES,...

Australia's election of a new Labor Government in late November 2007 was viewed by many observers as marking the end of a golden era in that country's security alliance with the United States. During his 11-plus years in office, Australian Prime Minister John Howard cultivated a uniquely intimate relationship with Washington, DC. This was particularly true since the George W. Bush administration assumed office in early 2001 and major terrorist attacks were launched within the United States on...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Tow, William T, ASIA-PACIFIC CENTER FOR SECURITY STUDIES HONOLULU HI, *FOREIGN...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Hearn, Clay S, TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN CENTER FOR ELECTROMECHANICS, *ALTERNATORS,...

November 13, 2001, President Bush issued a Military Order (M.O.) pertaining to the detention, treatment, and trial of certain non-citizens in the war against terrorism. Military commissions pursuant to the M.O. began in November, 2004, against four persons declared eligible for trial, but proceedings were suspended after a federal district court found one of the defendants could not be tried under the rules established by the Department of Defense. The D.C. Circuit Court of Appeals reversed...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Elsea, Jennifer K, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE,...

Operation Iraqi Freedom (OIF) has produced many examples that illustrate the abysmal heavy lift situation within USMC Engineer Support Battalions (ESBs). For example, in one instance during OIF I, Bridge Company C, 8th ESB crossed the Line of Departure in over 30 rented Kuwaiti trucks because there were not enough tactical vehicles available on which to load its heavy equipment and bridging components. Additionally, the Marine Corps' most capable heavy-lift asset possesses a limited off-road...
Topics: DTIC Archive, MARINE CORPS COMMAND AND STAFF COLL QUANTICO VA, *MARINE CORPS EQUIPMENT, *LOGISTICS...

This paper is concerned with the in-field autonomous operation of unmanned marine vehicles in accordance with convention for safe and proper collision avoidance as prescribed by the Coast Guard Collision Regulations (COLREGS). These rules are written to train and guide safe human operation of marine vehicles and are heavily dependent on human common sense in determining rule applicability as well as rule execution especially when multiple rules apply simultaneously. To capture the flexibility...
Topics: DTIC Archive, NAVAL SEA SYSTEMS COMMAND NEWPORT DIV RI, *NAVIGATION, *UNMANNED, *VEHICLES

Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *ECONOMICS, *EASTERN EUROPE,...

The prediction of long-term fatigue life of innovative CFRP laminates for marine use under temperature and water environments were performed by our developed * accelerated testing methodology based on the time-temperature superposition principle. Furthermore, Mode I and Mode II interlaminar fracture toughness and the crack growth property under fatigue, thermal and water environments of innovative CFRP laminates were investigated.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Miyano, Yasushi, KANAZAWA INST OF TECHONOLOGY ISHIKAWA (JAPAN) MATERIALS SYSTEM...

The Air Force is moving to a network centric environment where information must be data visible, accessible, and understandable. This transformation has seen the adoption of the Internet web browser as a de facto standard for information access. The Technology Acceptance Model suggests that information systems must not only be useful but also be usable and a large body of usability engineering knowledge exists to support usable design. In addition, the U.S. government mandates specific minimum...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Bentley, Richard S, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF...

CBO's analysis of the FCS program and potential alternatives supports the following observations: B The FCS program must surmount substantial technical and funding challenges if it is to develop and initially field all of the individual FCS components as currently scheduled by December 2014. B According to the Army's estimates, total annual costs to purchase the various FCS components could approach $10 billion. However, if such costs grew as those of similar programs have in the past, annual...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Gilmore, J M, CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE (U S CONGRESS) WASHINGTON DC, *ARMY...

The Army is attempting to transform itself from a force designed primarily to fight large and protracted wars in a limited number of locations to one capable of reacting rapidly to crises anywhere in the world. In its endeavor to make its combat units more versatile and agile, the Army is planning to replace its heavy, aging armored combat vehicles with newer, lighter systems that it expects will be as lethal and survivable as the vehicles they are replacing. Several types of manned vehicles as...
Topics: DTIC Archive, CONGRESSIONAL BUDGET OFFICE (U S CONGRESS) WASHINGTON DC, *GROUND VEHICLES, *COMBAT...

An accurate picture of areas controlled by opposing forces would help commanders gauge battle progress. The Army Research Laboratory has a well-developed prototype to visualize degree of control in open battlespace regions. The system computes power projection over time and space, based on probabilities of hit and kill, position, weapon effectiveness, and damage, and updates its display as new information is received. The urban battle presents difficulties in transforming the mathematics and...
Topics: DTIC Archive, O'May, Janet, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *DATA DISPLAYS, *URBAN...

Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *USSR, *ECONOMICS, POLICIES,...

Throughout much of the George W. Bush Administration, U.S.-China relations have remained unusually smooth and stable. But U.S. policy toward China now appears to be subject to competing reassessments. State Department officials late in 2005 unveiled what they described as a new policy framework for the relationship one in which the United States was willing to work cooperatively with a nondemocratic China while encouraging Beijing to become a responsible stakeholder in the global system. Other...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Dumbaugh, Kerry, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE,...

The INTEL 432/670 microcomputer system contains the iAPX-432 microprocessor which executes compiled ADA programs. The compiler resides on a host VAX 11/780, and compiled programs are downloaded to an INTEL MDS 800 system where they are transferred to the 432/670 for execution. This thesis describes a preliminary performance evaluation of the INTEL 432/670 through the use of selected benchmark algorithms from the Computer Family Architecture (CFA) study. A description of the hardware components...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Applegate,David James, NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY CA, *MICROPROCESSORS,...

The mission planning environment for the strategic bomber is characterized by numerous man-to-machine relationships, data flows and organizational interactions. Currently, these activities are accomplished by several mechanisms using a variety of data formats. Several tools have been developed to address the complexity of not only bomber mission planning, but tactical (unit) level mission planning as a whole. Unfortunately, many of these initiatives have fallen short of seamlessly connecting...
Topics: DTIC Archive, White, III, Samuel G, AIR FORCE INST OF TECHNOLOGY WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH GRADUATE...

This report documents a study of the wear debris characteristics of grease-lubricated spur gears. Gear sets were operated in an attempt to correlate the wear state of gears with the wear debris found in the grease. A firm correlation between the two could not be accomplished due primarily to the inability to obtain clear ferrograms from the grease medium.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Jones,D A, NAVAL AIR ENGINEERING CENTER LAKEHURST NJ GROUND SUPPORT EQUIPMENT DEPT,...

The waver was more easily detected when heard over a loudspeaker than over headphones. Measurements indicated that in a live-room environment there were amplitude fluctuations in the vowels, in addition to the intended pitch modulation, and that the combined modulation was better detected than the pitch changes alone. Waver was detected better for vowels than for pure tones.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Schmidt-Nielsen,Astrid, NAVAL RESEARCH LAB WASHINGTON DC, *Auditory perception,...

Dielectric Barrier Discharge (DBD) type devices, when used as plasma actuators, have shown significant promise for use in many aeronautical applications. Experimentally, DBD actuator devices have been shown to induce motion in initially still air, and to cause re-attachment of air flow over a wing surface at a high angle of attack. This thesis explores the numerical simulation of the DBD device in both a lD and 2D environment. Using well established fluid equation techniques, along with the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Charles, Christopher S, AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOOL OF...

Small-caliber rounds have a yaw cycle of approximately three meters, but the magnitude and initial yaw varies from shot to shot, even when fired from the same gun. This yaw cycle becomes a variable that researchers must consider when looking at the lethality of an individual shot and round type, especially when testing at close ranges where the yaw cycle is high. Four orthogonal radiograph images provided measured pairs of pitch, yaw and their Z-locations, a curve is fitted through all four...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Ehlers, Tyler E, ARMY RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *YAW, *SMALL ARMS...

The accurate prediction or experimental determination of projectile aerodynamics is of significant importance to the shell designer and ballistician. The shell desinger requires accurate aerodynamic data for the overall development of new shell. The ballistician is concerned with the development of aiming data and therefore relies heavily on accurate aerodynamic data. Experimental costs have sky rocketed in recent years and have contributed significantly to overall system development costs....
Topics: DTIC Archive, Nietubicz,Charles J, ARMY BALLISTIC RESEARCH LAB ABERDEEN PROVING GROUND MD, *Magnus...

Mean values and fluctuations of the temperature and the three-dimensional wind vector in the atmospheric surface layer was measured with ultrasonic anemometer/thermometers (sonics). The system performance was quantified by comparing observed turbulence spectra with inertial-range spectra predicted by the classical theory of homogeneous and isotropic turbulence.
Topics: DTIC Archive, MASSACHUSETTS UNIV AMHERST DEPT OF ELECTRICAL AND COMPUTER ENGINEERING, *ATMOSPHERES,...

In an article in the Journal of Psychiatric Research, Cadoret, Woolson, and Winokur (1977) consider two theories regarding the genetic makeup of patients suffering from unipolar affective disorder. These two theories imply nested but olique order restrictions on the parameters of a statistical model. A likelihood ratio test for these two restrictions is studied. (Author)
Topics: DTIC Archive, Warrack,Giles, IOWA UNIV IOWA CITY DEPT OF STATISTICS AND ACTURIAL SCIENCE,...

Under a U.S. Army program, Precision Combustion, Inc. (PCI) has developed and demonstrated an ultra compact and lightweight 2 5 kWe diesel reformer and desulfurizer producing 1 ppm sulfur in reformate. The prototype includes a steam generator, fuel/air/water pumps, premixer, atomizer, igniter, sulfur cleanup and a controller to enable stand-alone operation. The reforming reactor was based on a small, modular catalytic reactor, which utilized patented Microlith substrates and catalyst...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Roychoudhury, Subir, PRECISION COMBUSTION INC NORTH HAVEN CT, *FUELS, *PROCESSING,...

A telecommunication network is composed of a number of nodes. Each node can be either a terminal host or a web cache location. Objects are downloaded throughout the network among the nodes. An object can represent either a file or any other resource to be shared (e.g. machine time). For memory saving and for safety reasons, each object is composed of a number of portions and not all the portions are located within the same node, because no node should have the complete knowledge of each object....
Topics: DTIC Archive, GENOA UNIV (ITALY), *NODES, *NETWORK ARCHITECTURE, ROUTING, INTERNET, COMMUNICATIONS...

The ultimate goal is to develop direct simulation/physics-based forward and inverse capabilities for radiance prediction in a dynamic ocean environment. This direct simulation-based model will include and integrate all of the relevant dynamical processes in the upper ocean surface boundary layer into a physics-based computational prediction capability for the time-dependent radiative transport.
Topics: DTIC Archive, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE CENTER FOR OCEAN ENGINEERING, *OCEANS,...

JPRS publications contain information primarily from foreign newspapers, periodicals and books, but also from news agency transmissions and broadcasts. Materials from foreign-language sources are translated; those from English-language sources are transcribed or reprinted, with the original phrasing and other characteristics retained. This report contains articles concerning various South and East Asia topics.
Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *MILITARY OPERATIONS, *POLITICAL...

A comprehensive test ban treaty, or CTBT, is the oldest item on the nuclear arms control agenda. Three treaties currently limit testing to underground only, with a maximum force equal to 150,000 tons of TNT. According to the Natural Resources Defense Council, the United States conducted 1,030 nuclear tests, the Soviet Union 715, the United Kingdom 45, France 210, and China 45. The last U.S. test was held in 1992; Russia claims it has not conducted nuclear tests since 1991. Since 1997, the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Medalia, Jonathan, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS WASHINGTON DC CONGRESSIONAL RESEARCH SERVICE,...

Fuel cells are electrochemical devices that convert chemical energy to electrical energy with very high efficiency, and with very low levels of environmental emissions. The reformation of vegetable oil crops for fuel cell uses is not well known; yet vegetable oils such as canola oil represent a viable alternative and complement to traditional fuel cell feedstocks. This report summarizes a study conducted to identify various Montana oil crops available for reforming as a feedstock fuel in fuel...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Adams, John W, ENGINEER RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CENTER CHAMPAIGN IL CONSTRUCTION...

First, we focus on transitions (cases where our work is slated for use in either an AMC technology application or in important application arenas essential to the economic and environmental well being of the nation). Second, we address the theoretical contributions associated with neighborhood and landscape theory. The last 12 months have been intriguing, challenging, and productive. Much has been accomplished and we eagerly look forward to the future challenges that will be met and overcome in...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Barnes, J W, TEXAS UNIV AT AUSTIN DEPT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING, *MOBILITY, *AIRLIFT...

CL-20 (Octahydro-1,3,4,7,8,10-hexanitro-5,2,6- (iminomethenimino)-1H-imidazo[4,5-b]-pyrazin, C6H6N12O12), is an emerging energetic chemical that may replace RDX, however its degradation pathways are not well-known. In the present study molecular structure, electrostatic potential, vibrational spectrum and dynamics of thermal decomposition of CL-20 have been investigated by static and dynamic methods of ab initio computational chemistry. Based on good corresponding between predicted and computed...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Isaev, Olexandr, JACKSON STATE UNIV MS COMPUTATIONAL CENTER FOR MOLECULAR STRUCTURE...

Topics: DTIC Archive, Novoselov,B V, FOREIGN TECHNOLOGY DIV WRIGHT-PATTERSON AFB OH, *Tuning devices,...

Stability results for one-leg methods, valid for linear variable coefficient equations and certain nonlinear systems, and for arbitrary variable integration steps, were gotten by linear and nonlinear contractivity analysis. Nonlinear A- and A(alpha)-stability results for multistep methods were obtained by Fourier transform methods. Numerical and analytic results were given for solutions of the equations governing extended Josephson junctions or two-junction interferometers. Special methods were...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Liniger,Werner, IBM THOMAS J WATSON RESEARCH CENTER YORKTOWN HEIGHTS NY, *QUADRATIC...

This study has two objectives. It seeks first to determine how the newly published Army warranty program regulation, AR 702-13, has been received and implemented within the Army. Secondly, the study seeks to develop a decision methodology for use by those who acquire warranties. The report reveals that although the regulation was neither well known nor much used, attempts to manage warranties were discovered. Some acquiring commands within DARCOM have established systems to manage warranties,...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Lenassi,John R, LOGISTICS STUDIES OFFICE (ALMC) FORT LEE VA, *LOGISTICS MANAGEMENT,...

This thesis shows that in many practical situations the processing of a discrete-time signal can be accomplished using only the magnitude of its short-time spectrum. Mild restrictions on the signal and on the analysis window of the short-time spectrum are shown to be sufficient for unique signal representation with the short-time spectral magnitude. Furthermore, various algorithms are developed which reconstruct the signal from appropriate samples of the short-time spectral magnitude. Some of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Nawab,Syed Hamid, MASSACHUSETTS INST OF TECH CAMBRIDGE RESEARCH LAB OF ELECTRONICS,...

Phase transitions in adsorbed layers have been studied both theoretically and experimentally, using low-energy electron diffraction (LEED) as the major technique. The model system O/W(110) was studied and its phase diagram determined. In particular, it was shown that a two-phase coexistence region must always exist if there is a net overlayer cohesive energy. The details of this coexistence region were investigated, including the influence of finite-size effects in the overlayer on the phase...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Lagally,M G, WISCONSIN UNIV-MADISON, *PHASE TRANSFORMATIONS, *ORDER DISORDER...

The Tris(bipyarazine)ruthenium(II) cation has six peripheral uncoordinated nitrogen atoms potentially available for protonation in acidic media. Studies of the absorption and emission spectroscopy of the ruthenium cation in media ranging from neutral water to concentrated sulfuric acid, show that it is, indeed, possible to sequentially protonate these six nitrogen atoms. As the acidity is increased, a series of isosbestic points are seen in the absorption spectra, and these shift as the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Crutchley,R J, YORK UNIV DOWNSVIEW (ONTARIO) DEPT OF CHEMISTRY, *PHOTOCHEMICAL...

The technique of Mossbauer Spectroscopy and Nuclear Resonance has been used to measure the hyperfine field, the electric quadupole moment, and the isomer shift of the iron nucleus, the cobalt nucleus, and the samarium mucleus in the presence of different local environments caused by (a)the addition and deletion of various constiuents, and (b) by different heat treatments of the Sm2(Co,Cu,Fe,Zr,Cr) alloys. This was done in order to understand the role of the various substituents and of the...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Paul,David I, COLUMBIA UNIV NEW YORK, *FERROMAGNETIC MATERIALS, *PERMANENT MAGNETS,...

The goal of this investigation was to characterize and correlate the acoustic emission measured during deformation with the responsible deformation mechanisms. Two separate and distinct classes of materials have been investigated. The materials were chosen for the important fundamental information they could provide concerning the relationship between acoustic emission and the parameters involved and because of their practical importance to Air Force programs and objectives. The materials...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Carpenter,Steve H, DENVER UNIV COLO DEPT OF PHYSICS, *METALS, *ALLOYS, *ACOUSTIC...

We have investigated the effect of heme modifications and specific cross-linking of beta subunits in human and bovine hemoglobins. It appears that both techniques can be utilized for obtaining products potentially useful as oxygen carriers in resuscitative fluids.
Topics: DTIC Archive, Bucci,E, MARYLAND UNIV BALTIMORE, *HEMOGLOBIN, *BLOOD SUBSTITUTES, HUMANS, OXYGEN,...

This report contains articles on Political, Sociological and Military Affairs in East Europe.
Topics: DTIC Archive, JOINT PUBLICATIONS RESEARCH SERVICE ARLINGTON VA, *INTERNATIONAL POLITICS,...

After the September 11, 2001 (9/11), attacks on the United States, homeland defense became the primary issue in U.S. defense policy. At the same time, it was clear that homeland defense would have to become a trilateral continental issue, and, thus, would have to include Canada and Mexico. Because the United States and Canada already had developed a relatively close relationship during and after World War II as a result of their common interests and efforts in NATO (North Atlantic Treaty...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Diez, Jordi, ARMY WAR COLL STRATEGIC STUDIES INST CARLISLE BARRACKS PA, *MILITARY...

A number of ternary Ca-Mg-Cu amorphous alloys with compositions ranging from 40 to 70 at. % for Ca, 5 to 25 at. % for Mg, and 10 to 35 at. % for Cu were produced by a copper mold casting method as wedge-shaped samples with the thickness varying from 0.5 mm to 10 mm. The maximum thickness at which an alloy remains fully amorphous, glass transition temperature, crystallization temperature, temperature interval of the super-cooled region, solidus and liquidus temperatures, as well as heats of...
Topics: DTIC Archive, Senkov, O N, UES INC DAYTON OH, *CASTING ALLOYS, *METALLIC GLASS, MAGNESIUM, CALCIUM,...